According to Locke, personal identity the self "depends on consciousness, not on substance" nor on the soul. We are the same person to the extent that we are conscious of the past and future thoughts and actions in the same way as we are conscious of present thoughts and actions. For example, one may claim to be a reincarnation of Plato, therefore having the same soul substance. Therefore, self-identity is not based on the soul.
One soul may have various personalities. Neither is self-identity founded on the body substance, argues Locke, as the body may change while the person remains the same. Even the identity of animals is not founded on their body: On the other hand, identity of humans is based on their consciousness.
But this interesting border-case leads to this problematic thought that since personal identity is based on consciousness, and that only oneself can be aware of his consciousness, exterior human judges may never know if they really are judging—and punishing—the same person, or simply the same body. In other words, Locke argues that may be judged only for the acts of the body, as this is what is apparent to all but God; however, are in truth only responsible for the acts for which are conscious.
This forms the basis of the insanity defense: And to punish Socrates waking for what sleeping Socrates thought, and waking Socrates was never conscious of, would be no more right, than to punish one twin for what his brother-twin did, whereof he knew nothing, because their outsides were so like, that they could not be distinguished; for such twins have been seen.
Wherever a man finds what he calls himself, there, I think, another may say is the same person. It is a forensic term, appropriating actions and their merit; and so belong only to intelligent agents, capable of a law, and happiness, and misery. This personality extends itself beyond present existence to what is past, only by consciousness,—whereby it becomes concerned and accountable; owns and imputes to itself past actions, just upon the same ground and for the same reason as it does the present.
All which is founded in a concern for happiness, the unavoidable concomitant of consciousness; that which is conscious of pleasure and pain, desiring that that self that is conscious should be happy. For, supposing a MAN punished now for what he had done in another life, whereof he could be made to have no consciousness at all, what difference is there between that punishment and being CREATED miserable? For the brain, as the body and as any substance, may change, while consciousness remains the same.
In order to exist after death , there has to be a person after death who is the same person as the person who died. Bernard Williams presents a thought experiment appealing to the intuitions about what it is to be the same person in the future.
For the first approach Williams suggests that suppose that there is some process by which subjecting two persons to it can result in the two persons have " exchanged " bodies. The process has put into the body of person B the memories , behavioral dispositions , and psychological characteristics of the person who prior to undergoing the process belonged to person A ; and conversely with person B.
To show this one is to suppose that before undergoing the process person A and B are asked to which resulting person, A-Body-Person or B-Body-Person, they wish to receive a punishment and which a reward. Upon undergoing the process and receiving either the punishment or reward, it appears to that A-Body-Person expresses the memories of choosing who gets which treatment as if that person was person B; conversely with B-Body-Person.
This sort of approach to the thought experiment appears to show that since the person who expresses the psychological characteristics of person A to be person A, then intuition is that psychological continuity is the criterion for personal identity. The second approach is to suppose that someone is told that one will have memories erased and then one will be tortured. Does one need to be afraid of being tortured?
Next, Williams asked one to consider several similar scenarios. However, the last scenario is an identical scenario to the one in the first scenario.
In psychology , personal continuity, also called personal persistence , is the uninterrupted connection concerning a particular person of his or her private life and personality.
Personal continuity is the union affecting the facets arising from personality in order to avoid discontinuities from one moment of time to another time. Associations can result from contiguity , similarity, or contrast. Through contiguity, one associates ideas or events that usually happen to occur at the same time.
Some of these events form an autobiographical memory in which each is a personal representation of the general or specific events and personal facts. Body and ego control organ expressions. It has been argued that from the nature of sensations and ideas there is no such thing as a permanent identity. David Hume undertook looking at the mind—body problem. Hume pointed out that we tend to think that we are the same person we were five years ago.
We might start thinking about which features can be changed without changing the underlying self. Hume, however, denies that there is a distinction between the various features of a person and the mysterious self that supposedly bears those features. When we start introspecting, "we are never intimately conscious of anything but a particular perception; man is a bundle or collection of different perceptions which succeed one another with an inconceivable rapidity and are in perpetual flux and movement".
It is plain that in the course of our thinking, and in the constant revolution of our ideas, our imagination runs easily from one idea to any other that resembles it, and that this quality alone is to the fancy a sufficient bond and association. It is likewise evident that as the senses, in changing their objects, are necessitated to change them regularly, and take them as they lie contiguous to each other, the imagination must by long custom acquire the same method of thinking, and run along the parts of space and time in conceiving its objects.
Hume, similar to the Buddha ,  compares the soul to a commonwealth , which retains its identity not by virtue of some enduring core substance, but by being composed of many different, related, and yet constantly changing elements.
Critics of Hume state in order for the various states and processes of the mind to seem unified, there must be something which perceives their unity, the existence of which would be no less mysterious than a personal identity. Hume solves this by considering substance as engendered by the togetherness of its properties.
The "no-self theory" [q] holds that the self cannot be reduced to a bundle because the concept of a self is incompatible with the idea of a bundle. Propositionally , the idea of a bundle implies the notion of bodily or psychological relations that do not in fact exist. James Giles , a principal exponent of this view, argues that the no-self or eliminativist theory and the bundle or reductionist theory agree about the non-existence of a substantive self. The reductionist theory, according to Giles, mistakenly resurrects the idea [r] of the self  in terms of various accounts about psychological relations.
According to this line of criticism, the sense of self is an evolutionary artifact , [t] which saves time in the circumstances it evolved for. But sense of self breaks down when considering some events such as memory loss , [u] split personality disorder , brain damage , brainwashing , and various thought experiments. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about philosophy. For conception and expression, see self-concept and identity social science.
For other uses, see Personal identity disambiguation and Identity disambiguation. Physicalism and Further facts. Mind-body dualism , Monism , and Mind—body dichotomy. Idealism and Pluralism philosophy. Disjunctive syllogism , Affirming a disjunct , Proof by assertion. Nihilism , Post-left anarchy theory of self Not to be confused with Anatta.
Phenotypic traits , Society Social artifact , Culture Cultural artifact , evolutionary psychology criticism of evolutionary psychology. Archived from the original on 3 September Retrieved 22 October Edited by Kim Atkins. Edited by Imre Szeman , Timothy Kaposy.
Personal Identity Without Psychology. A Study in Personal Ontology: A Study in Personal Ontology. But the facts referred to proves that it does exist apart from one body with which it once was united, and though it is in union with another, yet as it is not adherent to the same, it is shown to have an existence separate from, and independent of that body. Meditations on First Philosophy Michael Moriarity translation of ed.
Archived from the original on Edited by Hugh Chisholm. By Charlotte Elizabeth Nebelin. Gould and Lincoln, By Robert Baker Girdlestone. Edited by Lawrence A. Pervin , Cary L. The Underlying Dynamics of Systems of Care. By Donna Cohen , Carl Eisdorfer. Archived from the original on 16 January Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original on 4 May Most importantly, one makes a smart investment into an educational career.
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