Skiing, for example, is higher than the snowmobile People from the same family, social class, or income level can have totally different lifestyles. According to Kotler and Armstrong , the process of buying differs from each product or service, a bottle of shampoo, a tennis racket, an expensive mobile phone or computer and a new car.
According to East et. However, Ehrenberg , cited in East et al. The three models of consumer decision which are used to explain the decision-making in details are:. Need recognition a information search aevaluation of alternatives apurchase decision a post purchase behavior Figure 5.
According to the automotive study done by Baltimore, Md. With the economic crisis all over the world, Thailand automotive market has also been affected in the first half of the year However, according to the Thai Farmer Bank Research Center, Thai economy seems to be getting back on track together with the other countries.
At the same time, the reducing in the sales of the cars has affected finance company and therefore these finance companies then starting to be more lenient with the buyers by offering lower interest to courage more sales which can then be identify that interest rate is one of the most important factors that influences the buying behavior of the customer towards the automobile.
Smartfund, The survey results from cars. PRNewswire, November 15, Communication research also discloses that the online car sales in U.
However, people finding internet to be useful for learning about the product in the early stage to learn about the offer and advantage that they would get, but in the later stage, people would want to get back to the traditional way of purchasing and get a test drive during the evaluation stage Molesworth and Suortti, Resale values of the vehicles also become one of the factors that influence people to buy a new vehicle.
Bill Drew, president of Drew Auto Center in La Mesa mentioned that he has made 25 sales on the first day that he started offering the trade-in cars. She mentioned that it is important for the manufacturers to focus on improving the product quality when the economic situation is favorable.
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Essay UK offers professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service. As music selections and their sound levels differ based on gender as well, stores need to put much thought into what they play in order to ensure buyers of a great environment.
Appearances are also taken into consideration while shopping in traditional stores. Lighting goes beyond highlighting products to generating excitement and positively impacting consumer purchasing behavior.
Consumers tend to touch products when good lighting shines on them to assess quality. Color is also important for building feelings and affecting consumer attitudes as it has the power to stimulate memories, thoughts, and experiences. For instance, red tends to portray negativity and tension, which is why it is hardly used in comparison with greens and blues.
Finally, products are displayed in a way that attracts customers to make impulse purchases. In fact, design and display of products contribute one fourth sales of the outlets. Unfortunately, not many store owners understand the value of the atmosphere and its impact on consumer behavior. As a result, they remain stagnant and refuse to change.
On the other hand, some stores make wrong decisions that cost them their clientele. Therefore, this is one aspect that needs to be tackled with care so that stores can truly reap benefits. Retrieved 26 March , from http: Consumer Behaviour 1st ed. Upper Saddle River, N. Decoding the new consumer mind. Schwartz, Barry , The Paradox of Choice: Belief Systems, Religion, and Behavioural Economics.
Retrieved 28 March , from https: Digital Commerce Primer for Usage Period of Present Brand, f. Reasons for Brand Switching, g. Brand knowledge is based on brand awareness and brand image. Creating brand awareness is an important tool in promoting brands with little differentiation such as toilet soaps.
It can play a major role in purchasing decisions. The products with highest brand awareness will usually get more sales. In the urban market segment, it is interesting to note that, higher the level of education level, greater is the brand awareness.
About 73 percent of respondent consumers are above graduation. Within this 73 percent, around 32 percent are from professional courses. These 73 percent respondents are aware of more than 7 brands. Majority of them could recall the brand ambassador and punch line of the brands also. The remaining 27 percent of the respondent consumers are with below graduation level of education.
Out of which, around 8 percent of the respondent consumers are below the tenth class. These 27 percent of respondent consumers are aware of only brands.
Majority of them, either they could not recall or are indifferent of brand ambassador and punch line. The strength, favorability and uniqueness of associations help build a superior brand image. A favorable brand image is useful in creating strong brand equity. In this regard, a question was asked with respondents to compare their present brand with other competing brands. Majority of the respondents comprising 64 percent felt that their brand as the best one.
Around 25 percent said it gives good value for money. The remaining 11 percent felt it as almost similar with other brands. At the same time, most of the respondents perceived their preferred brand as the market leader in its category. Although non price factors have assumed importance of late, price still remains a dominant factor influencing sales of a product. Fluctuation of prices will have an impact on continuity of the same brand, i. In this context, it is proposed to analyse the impact of price changes on brand loyalty income wise.
It is seen that at 10 percent price increase, majority of the respondents across all income levels opted for continuing with the same level of consumption. From among the remaining respondents, many decided to reduce consumption.
A few respondents wanted to shift to other brands. Similarly, at 20 percent price increase, 35 percent Low Income , 35 percent Middle Income , and 67 percent High Income respondents opted for continuing with the same level of consumption. Around 34 percent respondents from low income category chose to reduce their consumption. The corresponding figures for middle income and high income groups are 23 percent and 13 percent respectively. Another 13 percent Low Income , 30 percent Middle Income , 10 percent High Income respondents decided to shift to other brands, while the remaining preferred to search for other alternatives.
At the same time, at 40 percent price increase, 10 percent Low Income , 23 percent Middle Income , and 54 percent High Income respondents chose to continue with the same level of consumption. Another 1 6 percent Low Income , 7 percent Middle Income and 15 percent High Income wanted to reduce their consumption.
Further, around 55 percent Low Income , 51 percent Middle Income , and 19 percent High Income respondents desired to change their brands. The remaining respondents wanted to search for other alternatives. Further, based on the same data, Chi-square test is conducted to identify differences, if any, among the respondents belonging to different income groups in terms of price sensitivity and brand loyalty at various levels of increase in the price of present soap brand.
Calculated values are presented in Table II. It is observed from the above table that at 10 percent price increase, the calculated value of chi-square is less than the table value.
Hence, it can be concluded that there are no significant differences among the respondents belonging to different income groups at 10 percent price increase of the present toilet soap brand. But, when the price is increased to 20 percent or 40 percent above the current price, respondents belonging to different income groups exhibited altogether different behavior.
Store loyalty is regarded as the patronage of customers to a particular outlet.. Store loyalty is influenced by the availability of products and brands at the store and the process involved in customers acquiring them. Brand loyalty is also a major factor in shaping the customers opinions towards a particular store. When a preferred brand is not available in a particular store, consumers will have two options; purchasing the same brand in another shop i.
In the present study it is seen that 78 percent respondents preferred to purchase the same brand from another shop. The remaining 22 percent purchased other brands available in the same shop.
Brand loyalty also results in using the same brand regularly over a period of time. It is seen that 51 percent respondents have been using the same brand for above 4 years followed by 21 percent for below 1 year. Around 17 percent have been using it for years, and the remaining 11 percent for years.
However, sometimes consumers change their regular brands and patronize new brands due to various reasons. For this purpose, respondents are asked to identify the most important reason that for brand switching from earlier brand to present one. It is observed that 54 percent respondents cited better quality of new brand as a major reason for brand switching.
Another 13 percent wanted to check the new brand. The relative cheaper price of new brand enticed 10 percent to use the new brand. Customer satisfaction is a positive psychological tendency which the customer gets when he is able to meet the perceived need and expectation with the product he experiences. This satisfaction is related to various aspects such as cost, quality, performance and efficiency of the product.
Even if the products are identical in competing markets, satisfaction provides high retention rates. Higher the satisfaction level, higher is the sentimental attachment of customers with the specific brand of product. In this backdrop, the study intends to measure the satisfaction level of consumers towards their present soap brands.
For this purpose, Respondent consumers are asked to rate the performance of their present brand of toilet soap along some parameters such as price, packaging, durability, color, fragrance, freshness, quality, convenience of usage etc. The responses are classified into three categories namely excellent, above average, and average. It is observed that, respondents are fully satisfied with only premium soaps namely Dove and Pears as they are rated above average or excellent.
Cinthol, Mysore Sandal and Superia came next with majority of users rating them excellent or above average, while the remaining rating them average. The remaining brands are rated just average by the respondents. Cinthol, Mysore Sandal and Pears are the next preferred brands.
Another 33 percent purchased when they required the product. From the remaining ones, approximately equal number of respondents knew less than five and more than ten brands. The education level of the consumers has a positive bearing on the brand awareness.
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